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商业银行“暗战”定价

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月16日 03:56:03
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(  存)(款)(利)(率)(上)(限)(的)(“松)(绑)(”捅)(破)(了)(银)(行)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(的)(最)(后)(一)(层)(窗)(户)(纸)(,也)(意)(味)(着)(商)(业)(银)(行)(能)(彻)(底)(放)(开)(手)(脚)(在)(竞)(争)(中)(“各)(显)(神)(通)(”。经)(历)(了)(2015年)(以)(来)(的)(6次)(降)(息)(后)(,银)(行)(存)(款)(基)(准)(利)(率)(已)(经)(折)(半)(,行)(业)(整)(体)(息)(差)(进)(一)(步)(收)(窄)(。在)(“市)(场)(”和)(“盈)(利)(”的)(取)(舍)(间)(,无)(论)(是)(国)(有)(大)(行)(还)(是)(地)(方)(银)(行)(都)(有)(自)(家)(的)(盘)(算)(。
  据)(《中)(国)(经)(营)(报)(》记)(者)(了)(解)(,由)(于)(存)(款)(利)(率)(上)(浮)(、资)(产)(质)(量)(恶)(化)(,银)(行)(如)(今)(盈)(利)(正)(遭)(受)(多)(重)(挤)(压)(,盲)(目)(将)(存)(款)(利)(率)(“一)(浮)(到)(顶)(”已)(成)(往)(事)(。从)(目)(前)(市)(场)(格)(局)(看)(,“大)(行)(要)(利)(润)(,小)(行)(要)(市)(场)(”是)(一)(种)(普)(遍)(现)(象)(,通)(过)(对)(存)(贷)(款)(利)(率)(的)(定)(价)(,格)(局)(正)(在)(变)(化)(。
  大)(行)(“抱)(团)(”
  10月)(23日)(,央)(行)(宣)(布)(不)(再)(对)(商)(业)(银)(行)(和)(农)(村)(合)(作)(金)(融)(机)(构)(等)(设)(置)(存)(款)(利)(率)(浮)(动)(上)(限)(,并)(抓)(紧)(完)(善)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(形)(成)(和)(调)(控)(机)(制)(,这)(被)(视)(为)(国)(内)(银)(行)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(的)(收)(官)(之)(举)(。政)(策)(“松)(绑)(”之)(后)(,多)(数)(银)(行)(迅)(速)(调)(整)(了)(存)(款)(利)(率)(水)(平)(。目)(前)(,工)(、农)(、中)(、建)(、交)(五)(大)(行)(,步)(调)(基)(本)(一)(致)(,3个)(月)(、半)(年)(、1年)(期)(定)(存)(利)(率)(均)(为)(1.35%、1.55%、1.75%,上)(浮)(幅)(度)(为)(22%、20%、16.7%,2年)(期)(存)(款)(利)(率)(则)(上)(浮)(约)(12%,3年)(期)(以)(上)(则)(未)(进)(行)(上)(浮)(。
  “国)(有)(大)(行)(的)(存)(贷)(款)(利)(率)(不)(会)(变)(动)(特)(别)(明)(显)(。从)(政)(策)(的)(影)(响)(上)(看)(,对)(大)(行)(影)(响)(很)(小)(。”一)(家)(国)(有)(大)(行)(信)(贷)(部)(人)(士)(称)(,银)(行)(目)(前)(利)(差)(较)(往)(年)(已)(经)(下)(降)(了)(很)(多)(,依)(靠)(让)(利)(比)(拼)(价)(格)(不)(能)(持)(久)(。
  据)(记)(者)(了)(解)(,早)(在)(监)(管)(层)(实)(行)(存)(款)(利)(率)(浮)(动)(区)(间)(实)(现)(1.1倍)(的)(时)(候)(,大)(行)(在)(存)(款)(利)(率)(定)(价)(上)(就)(已)(经)(达)(成)(了)(“同)(盟)(”。不)(仅)(能)(够)(遏)(制)(行)(业)(间)(恶)(性)(竞)(争)(,还)(能)(够)(对)(银)(行)(市)(场)(起)(到)(主)(导)(定)(价)(的)(作)(用)(。
  该)(人)(士)(向)(记)(者)(透)(露)(,“大)(型)(国)(有)(银)(行)(对)(盈)(利)(能)(力)(要)(比)(小)(银)(行)(更)(重)(视)(。况)(且)(,即)(使)(大)(行)(的)(存)(款)(利)(率)(提)(高)(一)(些)(,也)(不)(一)(定)(能)(够)(对)(存)(款)(形)(成)(比)(较)(大)(影)(响)(。而)(今)(存)(贷)(比)(的)(限)(制)(取)(消)(了)(,银)(行)(对)(于)(存)(款)(需)(求)(也)(降)(低)(了)(很)(多)(。”
  他)(认)(为)(,国)(有)(大)(行)(的)(盈)(利)(能)(力)(不)(在)(对)(存)(贷)(款)(的)(定)(价)(上)(,而)(是)(贷)(款)(结)(构)(调)(整)(及)(非)(息)(收)(入)(上)(。“贷)(款)(结)(构)(调)(整)(是)(要)(平)(衡)(风)(险)(和)(贷)(款)(利)(润)(率)(,在)(对)(风)(控)(标)(准)(化)(之)(后)(,将)(资)(金)(投)(向)(利)(润)(较)(高)(的)(领)(域)(中)(。调)(整)(非)(息)(业)(务)(占)(比)(就)(是)(要)(扩)(大)(中)(间)(业)(务)(,加)(强)(通)(道)(业)(务)(、托)(管)(业)(务)(等)(等)(创)(新)(业)(务)(。”
  兴)(业)(银)(行)(首)(席)(经)(济)(学)(家)(鲁)(政)(委)(表)(示)(,利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(之)(后)(,银)(行)(应)(该)(转)(变)(观)(念)(。目)(前)(,银)(行)(资)(产)(端)(需)(求)(不)(足)(,对)(于)(存)(款)(的)(规)(模)(也)(就)(要)(通)(过)(利)(率)(来)(调)(整)(,不)(能)(一)(味)(做)(大)(规)(模)(。
  此)(外)(,记)(者)(了)(解)(到)(,相)(比)(存)(款)(业)(务)(来)(说)(,多)(数)(银)(行)(一)(直)(将)(银)(行)(理)(财)(产)(品)(作)(为)(存)(款)(的)(补)(充)(。“多)(数)(银)(行)(通)(常)(会)(推)(出)(一)(些)(保)(本)(或)(者)(风)(险)(极)(低)(的)(理)(财)(产)(品)(,收)(益)(要)(比)(存)(款)(高)(一)(些)(。这)(些)(理)(财)(产)(品)(一)(般)(都)(能)(按)(照)(预)(计)(收)(益)(兑)(付)(,也)(相)(当)(于)(是)(一)(种)(变)(相)(的)(存)(款)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,放)(开)(存)(款)(利)(率)(的)(限)(制)(意)(义)(就)(不)(会)(太)(大)(,参)(考)(的)(还)(是)(基)(准)(利)(率)(。”前)(述)(国)(有)(大)(行)(人)(士)(称)(。
  中)(小)(行)(“抢)(客)(”
  对)(于)(中)(小)(银)(行)(来)(说)(,市)(场)(和)(规)(模)(要)(远)(比)(息)(差)(重)(要)(的)(多)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,它)(们)(对)(存)(款)(利)(率)(的)(上)(浮)(就)(显)(得)(毫)(不)(吝)(啬)(。
  民)(生)(银)(行)(、兴)(业)(银)(行)(、浦)(发)(银)(行)(等)(等)(股)(份)(制)(银)(行)(3个)(月)(、半)(年)(、1年)(期)(定)(存)(利)(率)(大)(都)(在)(1.5%、1.75%、2%的)(水)(平)(,较)(基)(准)(利)(率)(上)(浮)(约)(36%、34%、33%。而)(3年)(期)(以)(上)(存)(款)(也)(有)(10%以)(上)(的)(上)(浮)(。
  更)(值)(得)(关)(注)(的)(是)(,城)(商)(行)(的)(价)(格)(战)(上)(演)(的)(更)(加)(激)(烈)(。长)(沙)(银)(行)(、重)(庆)(银)(行)(等)(等)(银)(行)(1年)(期)(的)(定)(存)(上)(浮)(40%以)(上)(。部)(分)(湖)(北)(、湖)(南)(小)(银)(行)(在)(存)(款)(利)(率)(的)(定)(价)(上)(甚)(至)(上)(浮)(超)(过)(60%。
  一)(家)(城)(商)(行)(高)(层)(向)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,在)(银)(行)(存)(款)(大)(户)(中)(不)(乏)(一)(些)(国)(企)(和)(事)(业)(单)(位)(,这)(些)(企)(业)(对)(于)(存)(款)(利)(率)(较)(为)(敏)(感)(,也)(会)(被)(收)(益)(打)(动)(。“地)(方)(政)(府)(一)(般)(都)(非)(常)(支)(持)(城)(商)(行)(,银)(行)(存)(款)(利)(率)(差)(异)(化)(越)(大)(,这)(种)(存)(款)(搬)(家)(也)(会)(越)(来)(越)(多)(。”
  “可)(能)(几)(笔)(存)(款)(不)(挣)(钱)(,但)(是)(在)(成)(为)(了)(银)(行)(客)(户)(之)(后)(,要)(看)(客)(户)(带)(来)(的)(综)(合)(收)(益)(。有)(了)(存)(款)(业)(务)(之)(后)(,客)(户)(就)(会)(有)(贷)(款)(需)(求)(,更)(多)(的)(业)(务)(合)(作)(也)(会)(跟)(着)(来)(了)(。”该)(银)(行)(高)(层)(认)(为)(,提)(高)(存)(款)(利)(率)(是)(市)(场)(切)(入)(的)(一)(种)(做)(法)(,可)(以)(起)(到)(一)(定)(作)(用)(。
  他)(向)(记)(者)(透)(露)(,银)(行)(存)(贷)(业)(务)(是)(一)(种)(同)(质)(化)(比)(较)(强)(的)(业)(务)(,相)(较)(大)(行)(其)(他)(业)(务)(,城)(商)(行)(可)(能)(都)(比)(较)(弱)(势)(。城)(商)(行)(的)(人)(手)(不)(足)(、风)(控)(上)(会)(有)(欠)(缺)(,也)(很)(难)(拿)(出)(大)(笔)(资)(金)(探)(索)(新)(业)(务)(,所)(以)(在)(新)(业)(务)(拓)(展)(上)(都)(会)(慢)(一)(些)(。
  鲁)(政)(委)(也)(认)(同)(这)(一)(观)(点)(,“城)(商)(行)(存)(款)(利)(率)(上)(浮)(较)(大)(是)(从)(客)(户)(角)(度)(考)(虑)(,除)(了)(抢)(新)(客)(户)(之)(外)(,也)(怕)(原)(来)(的)(客)(户)(流)(失)(了)(。”
  同)(时)(,由)(于)(城)(商)(行)(的)(规)(模)(一)(般)(较)(小)(,单)(单)(依)(赖)(存)(贷)(利)(差)(的)(收)(益)(是)(在)(不)(断)(下)(降)(,城)(商)(行)(也)(期)(望)(能)(通)(过)(客)(户)(来)(获)(得)(更)(多)(的)(非)(息)(收)(入)(。从)(现)(实)(情)(况)(看)(,城)(商)(行)(的)(存)(款)(往)(往)(和)(贷)(款)(挂)(钩)(,进)(而)(延)(伸)(到)(其)(他)(业)(务)(,通)(过)(衍)(生)(业)(务)(来)(反)(补)(利)(差)(上)(的)(损)(失)(。
  “通)(常)(情)(况)(下)(,要)(在)(城)(商)(行)(做)(贷)(款)(业)(务)(就)(要)(将)(账)(户)(开)(设)(到)(该)(银)(行)(,甚)(至)(有)(的)(城)(商)(行)(会)(有)(交)(纳)(保)(证)(金)(或)(贡)(献)(存)(款)(的)(条)(件)(。在)(企)(业)(和)(银)(行)(形)(成)(良)(好)(合)(作)(关)(系)(之)(后)(,银)(行)(是)(能)(够)(参)(与)(到)(企)(业)(发)(债)(、债)(券)(承)(销)(、委)(托)(贷)(款)(、代)(销)(业)(务)(等)(业)(务)(中)(。”上)(述)(城)(商)(行)(高)(层)(认)(为)(,对)(于)(一)(个)(银)(行)(客)(户)(而)(言)(,银)(行)(息)(差)(收)(入)(是)(远)(不)(及)(中)(间)(业)(务)(收)(入)(的)(。
  “城)(商)(行)(对)(于)(利)(率)(定)(价)(上)(可)(能)(还)(有)(很)(多)(无)(奈)(,但)(是)(长)(期)(价)(格)(战)(是)(监)(管)(不)(提)(倡)(的)(。”银)(监)(会)(相)(关)(人)(士)(称)(。
  据)(了)(解)(,在)(2015年)(城)(商)(行)(大)(会)(上)(,银)(监)(会)(主)(席)(尚)(福)(林)(就)(明)(确)(表)(示)(了)(城)(商)(行)(应)(该)(深)(耕)(地)(方)(经)(济)(特)(色)(领)(域)(,走)(专)(业)(化)(、差)(异)(化)(发)(展)(道)(路)(。
  “城)(商)(行)(业)(务)(上)(的)(差)(异)(化)(已)(经)(有)(所)(体)(现)(。比)(如)(互)(联)(网)(和)(小)(微)(业)(务)(上)(,城)(商)(行)(就)(更)(加)(擅)(长)(,也)(在)(解)(决)(融)(资)(问)(题)(上)(起)(到)(了)(比)(较)(大)(的)(作)(用)(。如)(今)(利)(率)(市)(场)(化)(进)(一)(步)(放)(开)(,城)(商)(行)(能)(够)(靠)(让)(利)(获)(得)(客)(户)(,但)(是)(以)(本)(伤)(人)(的)(情)(况)(不)(长)(久)(。”上)(述)(监)(管)(人)(士)(表)(示)(。
  他)(认)(为)(,如)(果)(银)(行)(提)(供)(的)(金)(融)(服)(务)(不)(好)(,一)(旦)(存)(款)(利)(率)(下)(降)(,客)(户)(终)(究)(还)(是)(会)(流)(失)(。
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